The Evolution of a Dish:

Menu Development: A Great Executive Chef Must Do These 6 Things

The menu is not merely a list of dishes; it's a narrative that tells the story of your restaurant, appeals to the target audience, and showcases the chef's expertise. In this blog post, we'll explore the essential elements that make an executive chef great at menu development. 

From conceptualization to costing, these six skills set the stage for effective menu development and can help you build dining experiences that leave a lasting impression.

1.Define menu identity and theme.

A well-defined menu theme and identity helps maintain consistency across the dishes offered. This consistency contributes to the establishment's branding, allowing customers to associate specific flavors, styles, or cultural influences with the restaurant.

Establishing a clear culinary identity also allows you to manage customer expectations. When diners understand the theme and style of the menu, they are more likely to have a positive and satisfying dining experience, leading to repeat visits and positive reviews.

Tips for Picking a Menu Theme

  1. Begin by clarifying your culinary philosophy. Consider the types of cuisine you are passionate about, your approach to cooking, and the values you want to convey through your dishes.
  2. Conduct market research to understand your target location's demographics, preferences, and culinary trends. This knowledge will guide you in tailoring the menu to the local audience.
  3. Align the menu theme with the overall concept of the restaurant. Whether it's a fine dining establishment, a casual eatery, or a specialty cuisine venue, the menu should complement and enhance the overall concept.
  4. Identify unique elements that set your culinary style apart. This could be a specific cooking technique, a signature ingredient, or a fusion of cultural influences. Emphasize these elements to create a memorable and distinct identity.
  5. Involve key stakeholders in the development process, such as kitchen staff, management, and trusted colleagues. Gather feedback to ensure that the menu theme resonates with others and is feasible for execution.
“How do you take an idea and understand if it's feasible? Flavor wise, logistically, financially, does it work within your menu structure where your guests like it? Are you making something just because you think it's cool or because it's a trend? So many young cooks say, 'I'm going to do it all'. And so the menus and the food that they put together are these highly disjointed ideas.  It’s like you took all the puzzle pieces and put them together in the wrong order. You literally need three pieces to put this together. Just do them really, really well.”

Evan Hennessey,

Chef/Owner The Living Room and Stages at One Washington

2. Know what competitors are up to

By studying competitors' menus, an executive chef can identify gaps in the market and uncover opportunities for differentiation. This knowledge is the compass, guiding the executive chef to navigate market trends, customer preferences, and dish prices. 

Recognizing competitors' strengths and weaknesses helps an executive chef enhance their unique selling points. Whether it's a focus on locally sourced ingredients, specific culinary techniques, or a signature dish, this information aids in highlighting what makes the restaurant unique.

Tips for Analyzing a Competitor's Menu

  1. Dine in as a customer to learn firsthand about the ambiance, service, and flavor profiles. This immersive approach allows for a holistic understanding of the dining experience.
  2. Read customer reviews to comprehend the strengths and weaknesses of competitors' menus. Analyze feedback to identify areas for improvement or opportunities to exceed customer expectations.
  3. Follow them on social media platforms like Instagram, Twitter, or Facebook to stay updated on menu changes, promotions, and customer engagement.
  4. Actively participate in culinary events, food festivals, or industry conferences where competitors may showcase their specialties. These events provide opportunities to witness trends and innovations in real time.
  5. Do a SWOT analysis, evaluating competitors' Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. This analytical framework provides a strategic overview, helping executive chefs make informed decisions.
“I want people to see themselves reflected in my food. Even though we do Arab cuisine, we're very much in mixed neighborhoods in my restaurants, and we are in California and there are things in my culture that remind my cooks of their own culture. So they add their own little spin on that, and it's really fun. I let them have pieces of themselves on the menu too, and I think that motivates them. Some people are motivated by creativity, some people are motivated by other things."

Reem Assil,

Chef/Owner, Reem’s California

3. Conduct a thorough cost analysis.

Cost analysis goes hand in hand with ingredient quality and sourcing decisions. It also allows chefs to identify and evaluate the financial implications of specific cooking methods, ensuring that these techniques align with budgetary considerations.

Armed with cost analysis insights, an executive chef becomes a menu engineer. This involves strategically placing high-margin items, creating balanced menu offerings, and identifying opportunities for upselling without compromising customer satisfaction.

Tips for Understanding the Cost of Your Menu

  1. Begin with a detailed breakdown of the cost of each ingredient. This involves accounting for quantities used, unit costs, and factoring in any waste during preparation.
  2. Standardize recipes to ensure consistency in portion sizes and ingredient quantities. This not only aids in accurate cost calculations but also contributes to consistent flavor profiles across different servings.
  3. Consider labor costs associated with the preparation of each dish. Analyze the time and skill required for cooking, plating, and other culinary tasks, factoring in labor expenses to understand the dish's cost.
  4. Cyclically analyze your menu costs. Regularly review and adjust cost calculations based on fluctuations in ingredient prices, supplier agreements, and changes in operational efficiency.
  5. Leverage chef-focused software like meez to streamline and automate your menu cost analysis process. Our tool can provide real-time menu insights, allowing for quicker and more accurate decision-making.

4. Be willing to negotiate. 

Negotiating with suppliers empowers an executive chef to secure the highest quality ingredients within budget constraints. By strategically negotiating prices, quantities, and terms, you can ensure a balanced mix of high and low-cost items without compromising quality.

Effective negotiation is also a linchpin in cost control. An executive chef with knowledge about ingredient costs is better equipped to secure favorable deals and discounts or explore alternative, more cost-effective sources.

Tips for Mastering the Art of Negotiation

  1. Clearly define your needs. Know your ingredient needs, quality standards, and operational requirements before engaging in discussions. This ensures that negotiations are focused and productive.
  2. Leverage seasonality. Suppliers may be more amenable to offering favorable terms on in-season or trending ingredients, allowing chefs to align their menus with market preferences.
  3. Go beyond haggling over prices. Negotiate on various fronts, including delivery schedules, payment terms, and exclusive partnerships. These nuanced negotiations contribute to a well-rounded and efficient supply chain.
  4. Stand firm on quality standards. Ensuring that negotiated deals do not compromise the integrity of the ingredients is paramount to delivering exceptional culinary experiences.
  5. Be adaptable. Consider alternative ingredients or adjust menu offerings based on negotiations to balance creativity and fiscal responsibility.
“My husband is American and Israeli, and I remember when he first came to my food truck and my restaurant, he was like, why are all these foods together on one menu? Like, haven't you heard of trimming down your menu? And I'm like, no. This is a very typical menu that you would find all over Hawaii. Like I'm not inventing anything in terms of like the dish names or the cuisines. We really do like to eat macaroni salad with everything. And we really do like, have our Holy Trinity in Hawaii of a meat on your plate with rice and macaroni salad that is called a plate lunch. And it is served at all times of day.”
Kiki Aranita,
Owner, Poi Dog

5. Strategically organize your menu. 

Effective organization enhances the readability and accessibility of the menu. Clear categories, concise descriptions, and logical sequencing provide a seamless browsing experience, allowing diners to identify dishes that align with their preferences quickly.

Menu organization is an extension of the executive chef's culinary expertise. A thoughtfully structured menu showcases the chef's mastery, highlighting their ability to balance diverse flavors, textures, and culinary techniques cohesively and appealingly.

Tips for Organizing Your Menu Effectively

  1. Categorize dishes logically. Grouping items into categories such as appetizers, mains, and desserts provides a familiar structure. Within each category, sequence dishes in a way that flows logically, considering factors like flavors, ingredients, and dining progression.
  2. Consider thematic grouping. Whether organizing dishes by regional influences, seasonal ingredients, or cooking techniques, thematic grouping adds depth to the menu and tells a story that resonates with diners.
  3. Craft clear and descriptive dish descriptions. Executive chefs should provide concise yet comprehensive details about each dish, highlighting key ingredients, preparation methods, and flavor profiles. This aids diners in making informed choices.
  4. Include allergies and dietary information. Indicating vegetarian, vegan, or gluten-free options ensures diners with specific dietary preferences can quickly identify suitable choices.
  5. Maintain a consistent and visually appealing layout. Consistency in formatting, spacing, and visual elements contributes to a professional and aesthetically pleasing menu. Larger or bold fonts should only be used for section headings or unique dishes to create visual emphasis. 
“At wd~50, we wanted to create this place where anybody that wanted to continue their ongoing culinary education would have a place to do that. We needed everybody's input to make the menu special, to make it unique. And then we wanted the customers' buy-in too. But we wanted to build this place where the cooks, the front of staff, everybody that was involved was involved. If the dishwasher said, ‘Chef, I have an idea on how we can make this process better.’ Great. I want to hear it. So it's about trying to create a place where they feel encouraged, where they don't feel intimidated.”
Wylie Dufresne,
Chef/Owner, Stretch Pizza

6. Involve your staff

Involving kitchen staff in the menu development process fosters a culture of collaboration and shared ownership. It sends a powerful message that each team member's diverse expertise and input is valued. Knowing that their ideas and skills are integral to the culinary vision instills a sense of pride, motivating staff to deliver their best work.

Being intimately familiar with the day-to-day operations, kitchen staff can also offer valuable insights into the practicality and feasibility of menu items. Involving them ensures that the menu is creatively inspiring and operationally sustainable.

Tips for Staff Collaboration

  1. Brainstorming sessions: Encourage kitchen staff to share their culinary inspirations, favorite ingredients, and creative concepts. This open dialogue sets the stage for a diverse range of ideas.
  2. Tasting panels: This hands-on approach allows chefs, line cooks, and other team members to provide valuable feedback on flavors, textures, and overall presentation.
  3. Recipe contests: Invite kitchen staff to submit their creations and consider featuring winning dishes on the menu. A contest not only fosters creativity but also adds an element of excitement to the process.
  4. Collaborative menu workshops: Assign specific menu components to individual chefs or cooks based on their expertise and interests. Allow them to experiment with ingredients, refine techniques, and collectively shape the menu.
  5. Establish a culture of ongoing feedback. Regularly check in with kitchen staff to gather insights on existing menu items, customer preferences, and operational challenges. This continuous dialogue ensures that the menu remains dynamic and responsive to evolving tastes.


Crafting a menu is not a solitary endeavor; it's a collaborative symphony that weaves together creativity, expertise, and a shared passion for cooking. From defining the menu's identity to negotiating with suppliers and conducting meticulous cost analyses to organizing dishes with finesse, these six essential skills are the pillars that uphold the art of menu development. 

Integrating cutting-edge tools such as meez into these processes can elevate an executive chef's menu development to new heights. With its ability to understand your actual theoretical food costs and a holistic view of food cost percentage, profits, and revenue, executive chefs not only create delectable dishes but also orchestrate a menu that harmonizes culinary artistry with financial acumen.

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